THAIWAN GUAVA – BOON TO GUAVA FARMERS
TAIWAN GUAVA – BOON TO GUAVA FARMERS Taiwan guava is becoming popular every year among the guava farmers. The reason is a regular fruiting character with two production season every year one from March to April and another from July August. Another most important character of Taiwan guava is sweatiness of fruit. The high ascorbic acid content in the fruits makes this guava fruit internally acclaimed and most sought-after fruit in the international market fetching a premium price for quality fruits. Each fruit weighs around 250 -300 grams. The foreign buyers prefer this size to bigger size. And the fruit looks light green in maturity The Taiwan guava tree reaches the height of 2.5 to 3.0 Meters in average with canopy size of 2.0 to 2.5 Meter diameter Planting season – one month before the onset of monsoon in India …June – July Planting pits – The pits are dug in the dimension of 2’ * 2’ * 2” BLD a month before planting and allowed the pits to cure until planting is done. Before the planting, the topsoil dug out of each pit is mixed with 10 kgs of farmyard manure, 100 grams urea, 100 grams potassium and 2.0 kgs of superphosphate and pit is filled to 45 centimetres depth and Taiwan guava seedling is planted just in the centre of pit with graft union exposed from soil level inside the pit. The seedlings must be planted 15-20 Cms down the general field surface inside the pit. After the planting, the Biofertilizers, biopesticides and VAM fungal culture that are mixed together with powdered farmyard manure and neem cake are applied @ 250- 500 grams to each pit and water. The spacing of the plants – 3.0 Meter by 2.0-meter row to row and plant to plant spacing is adopted for high yield of Taiwan guava. At this spacing 666 plants are planted in an acre of land. Mulching of guava trees – Mulching with coir pith waste provide excellent cover against hot sun and prevent weeds as well as water and nutrient loss thus enhance growth and fruits quality Training and pruning of Taiwan guava – When the plant reaches 75-80 cms high, cut back the plant to the height of 50-60 cms from the ground. This will stimulate the branching (primary scaffold). When the side branch reaches 30-40 cms long growth, select 3 – 4 strong branches in such a way that the retained branches fan around the central stem like an umbrella and all other weak branches are removed. The retained branches are cut back to half the length say 20 cms long or just green immature part of the branches is cut off retaining matured brown colour twigs of each retained primary branches. And further branching is encouraged in each primary branch. The same procedure is applied here in pruning the secondary branches as done earlier in the primary branches and 2-3 secondary branches are allowed in each primary branches and third light pruning is done on each secondary branches to produce tertiary branches. This will shape Taiwan guava tree with an excellent canopy that produces excellent flowers and fruits Each tree has 3 primary branches and 2 secondary branches and 4 tertiary branches. So total no of branches in each tree is 3* 2 * 4 = 24 shoots that produce flowers Each branch produces 3 fruits in an average. So single plant produces 24 branches * 3 fruits = 72 fruits. Each fruit is weighing about average 250 grams per fruit So total fruit weight per tree is 72 fruits * 0.250 kgs = 18 kgs So 666 guava tree produces 666 plants * 18 kgs = 12.0 MT ( 11,988 kgs ) There is two harvest. so annual per acre yield of guava fruit is 24.0 MT Each kg of Taiwan guava sells @ Rs. 50 in the Indian market and Rs.150 in an overseas market So per acre income is 24,000 kgs * Rs.50 = 12.0 lacs in domestic markets To obtain above income following intervention is needed As the plant grows we need to increase soil organic carbon to the level of at least 2.0 % ( higher level of productivity is obtained in soil carbon level of 4.0 to 5.0 % ) Indian soil except the hilly region is having a very poor level of organic carbon say around 0.5 %. At this level of soil organic carbon, the soil remains less productive or simply sterile and produces less yield and poor fruit quality. So to increase soil organic carbon we need to apply green manure or green leaf manure. During monsoon season sow 8-10 kgs of sun hemp seeds in the inter-row spaces. This will in about 50-55 days give 6-8 MT of green biomass. The plants are harvested and laid close to plants in rows along the guava plants and covered by soil. And if possible we can spray Urea + gypsum mix over the green matter and then cover by soil. This will escalate the decomposition process faster. 6.0 MT of green mater will add 750-900 kgs of organic matter. Likewise, you can add green matter in addition to 10-20 MT of farmyard manure for the first 2-3 years. If you do this for the first 3 years, the soil organic carbon level will increase by o.1- 0.2 % every year and will go beyond 1.0 % of total soil volume. Thereafter you can add organic matter in the form of farmyard manure @ 20 kgs per tree, say 12 MT of farmyard manure. By the time the guava plant attains the age of three years and are about to produce more flowers and fruits, the soil would have turned into highly productive growing/ supporting medium with a lot of soil microbes that produce amino acids that helps in better growth and yield of Taiwan guava.
Fertilizers –0. 460 kg nitrogen , 0.320 kg phosphorus and 0.3 kg potash per tree is needed per year For 666 plants – grown up trees (5th year onwards) Nitrogen – 666 *0.460 =306kgs of nitrogen Phosphorus – 666 *0.320 kgs =213kgs Potash – 666 * 0.300 kgs = 199.80kgs In terms of urea = 306 * 2.17 = 664kgs urea In terms of super phosphate = 213 kgs * 6.25= 1331kgs Interms of muriate of potash = 199.80 * 1.66 = 331.668 Urea = 664 kgs ( single tree – 1.0 kg ) SSP = 1331 kgs ( single tree – 2.0 kgs ) MOP = 332 kgs ( single tree – 0.50 kgs ) For the first year Urea – 200 grams per plant SSP – 400 grams per plant MOP – 100 grams per plant Second year Urea – 200 grams per plant SSP – 800 grams per plant Mop – 200 grams per plant Third year Urea – 600 grams per plant Super phosphate – 1200 grams per plant MoP- 300 grams per plant Fourth year Urea – 800 grams per plant Super phosphate – 1600 grams per plant MOP – 400 grams per plant Fifth year Urea- 1000 grams per plant Super phosphate – 2000 grams per plant MOP – 500 grams per plant
FARMYARD MANURE (FYM) First year – 10 kgs per plant Second year – 20 kgs per plant Third-year onwards – 30 kgs of per plant Fourth-year – 40 kgs per plant Fifth-year – 50 kgs per plant
Foliar spray for better fruit quality ZnSO4 -0.25% + FeSO4 -0.25% + MgSO4 0.25% + Borax 0.1% Pre-harvest spray of calcium nitrate @ 1% – three sprays during the period of fruit set to harvest. Bending – bending the upright branches produce more flowers. It converts vegetative flushes into flower producing branches. Fruiting – since current season branch bears flowers and fruits regular pruning keep the Taiwan guava tree on continuous flowering … Cost of cultivation Seedlings cost – ( 666 plants * Rs.200 ) = Rs. 1,33,200 Land preparation and pit formation – Rs. 7000 Farmyard manure – 10 MT @ Rs.1000 per MT – Rs.10,000 Basal manure and fertilizers – Rs.12,000 Planting labour – Rs. 2000 Fertilizers – Rs.4000 Training and pruning cost – Rs.3000 Pest and disease management – Rs.10,000 Green manure seeds and incorporation – Rs.2500 Contingencies – Rs.2000 Total cost – Rs. 1,85,700 DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM – RS.40,000 PER ACRE Total cost – Rs.2,25,700 Second year cost Farmyard manure+ fertilizers+ pruning + pest and disease management = Rs.30,000 Third year cost = Rs.45,000 Fourth year cost – Rs. 55,000 Fifth year cost – Rs. 60,000 INCOME FOR GUAVA HARVEST AND SALES First year – nil Second year yield – 4,000 kgs ( 4000 kgs *Rs. 50 = Rs. 2,00,000 ) Third year yield – 8000 kgs ( 8000 kgs * Rs.50 = Rs.4,00,000 ) Fourth year yield – 14 ,000 kgs ( 12000 kgs * rs.50 = 7,00,000 ) Fifth year yield – 26,000 kgs ( 26,000 kgs * Rs.50 = 13,00,000 )
Expenditure for the first five years – Rs.4.157 lac Gross income for the first five years – Rs. 26.00 lac Net income – Rs.21.84 lac Average net income per year per acre – Rs.4.37 lac